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Mead Lovers Digest #0456

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Mead Lovers Digest
 · 9 Apr 2024

Subject: Mead Lover's Digest #456, 30 January 1996 

Mead Lover's Digest #456 30 January 1996

Forum for Discussion of Mead Making and Consuming
Dick Dunn, Digest Janitor

A Treatise on Mead Judging (Michael L. Hall)

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Janitor's Note: This is a special issue containing one article by Michael
Hall. The article on mead judging was published in the January, 1996 issue
of _Inside_Mead_, the journal of the American Mead Association, and is re-
printed here by arrangement with the author.

"No endorsement is implied." This article is not intended to dictate;
indeed, I hope that the effect of this article will be to stimulate
discussion (and even polite controversy) about mead judging.

I believe articles such as this should be welcome in the digest. If you
have a long article, please contact me (at ahead
of time so that I can arrange a separate issue, to avoid disrupting the
flow of digest discussion in normal issues. -thanx, rcd

Subject: A Treatise on Mead Judging
From: (Michael L. Hall)
Date: 30 Jan 96 21:30:59 MST (Tue)

Preamble to "A Treatise on Mead Judging"

by Michael L. Hall

Mead judging is truly in a nascent state. Mead has been brewed and consumed for
thousands of years, and we assume that during that time there have been
numerous discussions of its merits and attributes. However, primarily because
mead has not been as popular as beer and wine during the last several
centuries, relatively little information on mead content, flavors, recipes and
styles has survived to the present day. Compare, for example, the information
known about pyment with that of Vienna beer or porter. Consequently, the state
of the art of mead judging has lagged behind that of beer and wine.

It therefore seems appropriate, after several years of mead judging under our
belts (so to speak), to step back and reflect on the process, with the hopes of
improving and defining it before bad practices become ingrained in the mead
judge's psyche. The following article is my essay at this goal.

I've been judging mead in state and national competitions since 1990. During
that time I gained a lot of experience, but I also noticed several problems
associated with mead judging. The first problem is one that I may have
inadvertently contributed to myself. In the 1992 Mazer Mead Cup the winning
traditional mead contained small quantities of tea, as revealed by the
published recipe. I (and probably others) expressed concern over a winning
entry which contained ingredients that were inappropriate to the style. The
organizers of the Mazer Mead Cup changed the categories in subsequent years to
include both a traditional mead, which allowed other ingredients, and a show
mead, which only allowed honey, yeast and water. I think that a better solution
would be to define the category in terms of tastes, rather than ingredients. A
traditional mead would then contain any ingredients the brewer cared to use,
but any spicy or fruity character would be considered a flaw.

A second problem is that the judging categories seem to be based more on which
types of mead have specialized names, rather than on entry frequency or natural
divisions. For example, I've judged many more raspberry melomels than grape
melomels, but only grape melomels are split out from the melomel category
because they have the specialized name "pyment". I have devised some category
descriptions that will even out the entries per category while still retaining
the specialized names and the natural divisions. The basic idea is to have
numerous subcategories that can be combined for judging purposes or kept
separate if the number of entries is high enough. This concept will enable the
category guidelines to be functional for both large and small competitions.

A third problem is that meads that use an interesting varietal honey tend to
get short-changed if the judge is not familiar with the type of honey. A mead
made with strongly flavored and dark mesquite honey is a prime example of this
problem. I propose that traditional meads that feature a varietal honey be
judged separately, and that information on the type of honey for all meads be
submitted by the entrant and given to the judge the same way the fruit and
spice ingredients are commonly done now. The varietal information would be
treated as one of several modifiers on the category style.

A fourth and final problem that I have noticed in mead judging is similar to
the "bigger is better" problem in beer judging. I have judged many meads which
were light, delicate and wonderful that were dismissed by other judges because
they weren't extreme enough. Strangely enough, this is a case where there
already exists a historical name for the type of mead that is not currently
being used. A hydromel was traditionally a mead that had been weakened by
dilution. I think that the best way to give hydromels the consideration they
deserve would be to add "hydromel" as a modifier on the category style.

I should also mention my predispositions about mead (which some of you may not
share). Mead is not beer; it should not contain hops, with the exceptions of
braggot and hop-flavored metheglins. Mead is not wine; it should not have grape
or wine character, with the exception of pyment and hippocras. Mead is a
fermented honey beverage; it is imperative that honey be expressed in the taste
and the aroma.

After considerable reflection, I came up with "A Treatise on Mead Judging"
which incorporates solutions to the aforementioned problems, fleshes out the
descriptions of the mead categories and describes the details of a mead
judging. With the hope that future mead contests will adopt them, I offer the
following guidelines.

A Treatise on Mead Judging

by Michael L. Hall

- ------------

This article provides a description of some of the details of a mead
competition. It is not a complete description; many of the procedures that are
common to a beer competition are omitted. The first section is concerned with
the individual categories into which the meads are to be entered. The duties of
the competition organizer are detailed in the second section, and instructions
for the judges themselves are given in the final section. The last section is
designed to be printed out and handed to judges at the beginning of a
competition. The judges should also be provided with the modifier descriptions,
the category description and the subcategory descriptions for all of the
subcategories that they will be judging during the current flight.

Category Descriptions
- ---------------------

Meads should be entered into and judged according to the following categories.
In addition to specifying a category, the entrant should also specify which of
the category modifiers (Variety of honey, Strength, Sweetness, and Carbonation
Level) applies to the entry. All of this information will be provided to the
judges. Subcategories may be combined at the discretion of the competition
organizer, after the entry deadline has passed.


The category modifiers are to be provided in addition to the category and
subcategory information. Judges should use this information to order meads
within a flight and for insight into what the brewer intended. However,
judges should not detract heavily from a mead's score because it does not
fall distinctly within the range of the modifier specified by the brewer.

Varietal modifier: The variety of honey that a mead is made from will often
have a large effect on the flavor of the mead. The brewer should specify
the varietal honey (for example, clover or orange blossom). The mead should
have some character from the varietal honey, especially if it is a
traditional mead.
Strength (Hydromel / Standard / Sack) modifier: The strength of a mead is
primarily based on the original gravity. Hydromels (watered mead) will have
specific gravities roughly less than 1.080. Standard strength meads will be
in the original gravity range from 1.080 to 1.120. Sack meads will
generally be greater than 1.120. This modifier was designed so that
well-made delicate hydromels will not be overlooked in favor of the more
emphatic sack meads. Make sure to judge each strength of mead according to
its own merits.
Sweetness (Dry / Medium / Sweet) modifier: The perceived sweetness is largely
a function of the final specific gravity, but other variables such as the
acidity will also have an effect. Roughly, a dry mead will have a final
gravity less than 1.010, a medium mead will fall in the range from 1.010 to
1.025, and a sweet mead will be greater than 1.025.
Carbonation Level (Still / Sparkling) modifier: Still meads should have
little or no carbonation. Some slight carbonation is acceptable. Sparkling
meads should have a definite effervescence and tingly mouthfeel. Tiny
bubbles are preferable to large bubbles.

Categories and subcategories:

1. Traditional Mead - A mead made primarily from honey, water and yeast.
Honey should be expressed in aroma and flavor. Additives of any type are
allowed at sub-threshold levels (spice or fruit character is considered a
flaw). The mead should have a neutral acidity-sweetness-tannin balance.

a. Standard Traditional Mead - uses clover or wildflower honey.
b. Varietal Honey Traditional Mead - is made from honey from a particular
flower source (clover and wildflower honey are not acceptable in this
category). The brewer must name the varietal honey. Examples include
buckwheat, orange blossom, star thistle, fireweed, snowberry, raspberry
blossom, mesquite, heather, alfalfa, tupelo, etc. The mead should
showcase the distinctive taste of the particular varietal honey.

2. Melomel - A mead made with fruit. The fruit should be expressed in the
aroma, the taste and the color of the mead (see subcategories for
exceptions). Honey should be expressed in aroma and flavor. There should
be a good balance between the honey and the fruit character in both the
aroma and taste.

a. Cyser (Apple Melomel) - should have distinct apple character in aroma
and taste. Color should be straw to golden.
b. Pyment (Grape Melomel, also spelled Pymeat) - may be either straw to
golden color or have a pink to purple cast. The mead should have a
definite grape wine character, but should also have a balanced honey
character. Grassy white wine character or buttery (diacetal) chardonnay
character is appropriate in pyment (or hippocras) only.
c. Raspberry Melomel - should have a distinct and intense raspberry
flavor. Raspberry tartness and tannin should be balanced by honey
sweetness. Honey flavor and aroma should still come through. The mead
should have a deep red-purple color.
d. Cherry Melomel - should have a deep reddish brown color. Cherry flavor
(either cherry pie or sour cherry) and aroma should come through
strongly, but be balanced by the honey character. Many people have a
knee-jerk distaste for real cherry flavor due to cherry-flavored
medicines taken as a child; judges should either overcome their
prejudice or refrain from judging cherry melomels. Some almond
character from the cherry pits is okay and can be a plus. This melomel
may range from a light cherry hydromel to a heavy, sherry-like after
dinner drink. Some oxidation may be appropriate to give this mead a
sherry or port character.
e. Plum Melomel - has many similarities to cherry melomel. The mead should
have a deep purple to reddish brown color. Plum character should be
apparent in both the aroma and taste, balanced with the honey
character. Some oxidation may be appropriate to give this mead a sherry
or port character.
f. Peach Melomel - should have fresh peach taste, like biting into a
peach. Instead of having a fruit-honey balance, peach melomels are
unique in that the peach taste blends with the honey taste, giving a
whole greater than the sum of the parts. Slight cloying quality okay.
Color should be a pinkish golden.
g. Apricot Melomel - should have a pink-orange tint. Apricot taste and
aroma should be strong, with an accompanying strong honey character.
The acid-sweetness balance in this mead is particularly hard to attain,
as apricots tend to be very acidic.
h. Strawberry Melomel - should have fresh strawberry aroma. May not have
any discernible strawberry color. Strawberry taste may be delicate.
Good examples will have a definite strawberry character in the aroma
and taste, but will probably be delicate meads in order to be
i. Blueberry Melomel - may not have any discernible blueberry color.
Blueberry taste may be delicate. Good examples will have a definite
blueberry character in the aroma and taste, but will probably be
delicate meads in order to be balanced.
j. Berry Melomel - may be Boysenberry Melomel, Marion Berry Melomel, Morat
(Mulberry Melomel), Blackberry Melomel, Cranberry Melomel, Elderberry
Melomel or others. Most berry melomels will have a distinct reddish to
purple color. Berry flavor and aroma should be present and balance with
honey character. Berry melomels have a tendency to be overly tannic; a
good tannin-sweetness balance is desired.
k. Citrus Melomel - may be more acidic (tarter) than other melomels, but
should still have a good acid/sweet balance. The melomel may be made
with orange, lemon, lime, grapefruit, tangerine or other citrus fruits.
Little or no expression of fruit in the color. Citrus character may be
hard to discern unless compared against a traditional mead. Honey
character will probably dominate, but citrus should still come
l. Tropical Fruit Melomel - may include papaya, mango, kiwi, guava,
pomegranate or other tropical fruits. Should express fruit character,
but may be difficult to judge due to less familiarity with the fruit
tastes. Color may be straw (kiwi) to orange golden (mango, papaya,
guava) to purplish (pomegranate). Fruit may be expressed as an enhanced
fruitiness blended with the honey flavor.
m. Prickly Pear Mead - should have a deep golden color. Prickly pear will
be expressed as a dry, dusty or powdery taste, overlaid on a sweet
background. Honey should be prominent and accentuated by the prickly
n. Other - see general melomel description.

3. Metheglin - A mead made with spices or herbs. The spices should be
expressed in the aroma and flavor of the mead, but usually won't appear in
the color. Honey character should be apparent in the aroma and flavor.
There should be a good honey-spice balance in the mead. Metheglins
containing more than one spice should also have a good balance between the
different spices. Often, a blend of spices may give a character greater
than the sum of its parts.

a. Mulling Spice Metheglin - may contain Allspice, Cinnamon, Cloves,
Ginger, Nutmeg, Citrus Rind, Mace or other mulling spices. Most
metheglins in this subcategory will contain a blend of these spices.
If several spices are used, spices should blend together. A common
problem is overdoing the ginger, as it tends to dominate. Honey should
be very noticeable and should blend well with these spices.
b. Beer Spice Metheglin - may contain Coriander, Cardamom, Curacao Orange
Peel, Woodruff or other spices often associated with beers. Spices
should be evident and balanced with honey character. May be reminiscent
of a Wit Beer or Berliner Weisse. The mead will probably be light in
order not to overwhelm the delicate spices.
c. Mellow Spice Metheglin - may contain Vanilla Bean, Chocolate, Anise,
Maple Syrup, Sassafras Root or other mellow or rounded tasting spices.
These spices all have smooth tastes, in contrast to the more piquant
spices in the other subcategories. The flavor of the spices may blend
with that of the honey more than be balanced with it. Acidity-sweetness
balance may be particularly important, as these metheglins will have a
tendency to be cloying. Some cloying character is acceptable. Anise has
a flavor similar to licorice.
d. Italian Spice Metheglin - may contain Oregano, Basil, Thyme, Bay
Leaves, Sage, Rosemary, Garlic or other Italian spices. Think of this
metheglin as an accompaniment for Italian food, enhancing and
augmenting the tastes present in the meal. Mixtures of these spices may
be more common than individual spice metheglins. The mead may be light
to balance the honey and spice character, with the exception of garlic
e. Flower Petal Metheglin - may be made from Rose Petals (Rhodomel),
Dandelion Petals, Lavender Petals, Tea Blends (Earl Grey, Orange Pekoe,
Bergamot, Chamomile, Jasmine, etc.), Heather Tips, Hop Cones
(Miodomel), Honeysuckle Flowers, Elderberry Flowers or other flower
petals. In most cases, these metheglins will be hydromels in order to
showcase the fragile taste and aroma of the flower petals. Metheglins
made with teas and hops will be the exception to this, and will be
stronger in body. Honey character should be present, but will be light
to balance the delicate flower character.
f. Peppery Metheglin - may contain White Pepper, Black Pepper, Mint,
Spearmint, Peppermint, Lemon Grass, Curry Powder, Grains of Paradise,
Juniper Berries, Spruce, Mustard Seed, Fennel, Turmeric, Fenugreek,
Cumin or other peppery spices. These pungent spices provide a fitting
counterpoint to the sweetness of the honey. Honey should be prominent
but balanced with the spice character.
g. Chile Mead (Capsimel, named for the spicy chemical capsaicin and the
genus of chile plants, capsicum) - may contain Jalapeno Peppers, New
Mexico Green Chiles (Sandia, Espanola, Hatch, Numex Big Jim, Rio
Grande), Red Chiles, Poblano Chiles, Mexican Pequin Pepper, Ancho
Chiles, Chipotle Chiles, Tabasco Peppers, Cayenne Peppers, Anaheim
Chiles, Serrano Peppers, Habanero Peppers, Cascabel Peppers, Thai
Peppers or other chiles or peppers. The metheglin may vary widely in
amount of heat. Always judge capsimels last in a flight. The taste of
the chile should be evident as well as the heat. A strong sweetness and
honey flavor will probably be necessary to balance the chile flavor.
Chile character should also be present in the aroma.
h. Other - see general metheglin description.

4. Braggot - A mead made with malted barley or wheat (also spelled Bracket or
Bragget). The majority of the fermentable sugars should come from honey
(otherwise it is really more of a honey ale). A braggot should have good
malt character in the aroma and flavor. Hop bitterness, flavor and aroma
may be present, but are not required. There should be a good balance
between the beer aspect and the mead aspect of a braggot, especially with
regard to maltiness and bitterness vs. honey character.

a. Pale Braggot - has a color in the light straw to golden range. Malt
taste will be light and honey character will be light to balance.
b. Amber Braggot - has a color in the golden to light brown range. The
braggot will often contain crystal or caramel malt, which will have a
residual sweetness that will blend with the honey aspects.
c. Dark Braggot - derives its color from darker malts, such as chocolate
malt, black patent malt and roasted barley. The tastes of the darker
malts (roasted character or chocolate malt smoothness) should be

5. Mixed Category Mead - A mead that combines ingredients from two of the
three previous categories. The mead should exhibit the character of all of
the ingredients, and should show a good blending or balance between the
various flavor elements.

a. Hippocras (Spiced Pyment) - a mead made with grapes and spices. Grassy
white wine character or buttery chardonnay character is appropriate in
hippocras (or pyment) only.
b. Apple Pie Mead (Cyser with Mulling Spices) - a mead made with apples
and Allspice, Cinnamon, Cloves, Ginger, Nutmeg, Citrus Rind, Mace or
other mulling spices.
c. Spiced Melomel or Fruited Metheglin - a mead made with fruit and
d. Maltomel - a mead made with malt and fruit.
e. Malteglin - a mead made with malt and spices.
f. Other - see general mixed category description.

Instructions for Organizers
- ---------------------------

Organizing a mead judging is very similar to organizing a beer judging. There
are concerns with advertising, handling the entries, registration, getting
enough judges to participate, buying prizes, and making sure that the meads
get a fair judging. Since the overlap is so great, and since there have been
other publications concerned with organizing a beer judging, only the topics
peculiar to judging mead will be covered in this section.

Entry form - The entry form for a mead judging should contain, in addition to
the standard information (mead name, brewer name and address, recipe),
information specific to meads. This includes the category and subcategory of
the mead, and all of the modifiers: variety of honey, additives (fruit, spices,
malt), strength (hydromel/standard/sack), sweetness (dry/medium/sweet), and
carbonation level (sparkling/still). All of this information except the recipe,
the mead name and the brewer's name and address should be passed on to the
judge. For instance, a judge might find himself judging a still, sweet prickly
pear sack mead made with mesquite honey or a sparkling, dry blackberry hydromel
made with orange blossom honey, with full knowledge of that information.

Stewarding concerns - A mead steward should always have a corkscrew available
in addition to a bottle opener. The serving temperature for a mead should be
cellar temperature, 55-60 F. Some judges will prefer their meads warmer than
this, and can be accommodated by setting the bottles out thirty minutes before
the judging begins (or at the same time the judging begins, if necessary). Be
sure to protect braggots from light while setting them out to warm, as some
brewers may include hops that can become skunky from exposure. Always decant
the mead as if there were sediment present, even though that is often missing
from meads.

Smaller flights - Consider the higher alcohol content of meads and try to make
the individual flights smaller, on the order of 10 meads. The brewers will get
better feedback if they are not unfortunate enough to have the 14th mead tasted
in a flight. It's better to have two flights (a morning and an afternoon) than
one marathon session.

Categories - Start out with the full category and subcategory listings (see
Categories section) for the contest. After the entry deadline has passed,
combine subcategories and give awards according to the number of entries
received in a subcategory per the following scheme.

0-2 entries - combine with a similar subcategory or the main category.
3-5 entries - judge separately and give at most a single award.
6-8 entries - judge separately and give at most two awards.
>8 entries - judge separately and give at most three awards.

Try to combine subcategories that are similar to one another. A typical small
mead competition (possibly part of a larger beer competition) might combine all
of the subcategories so that only the five main categories remain. A medium
size mead competition might have the following thirteen grouped subcategories:

1. Traditional Mead
a. Standard Traditional Mead
b. Varietal Honey Traditional Mead
2. Melomel
a. Cyser & b. Pyment
c. Raspberry Melomel, d. Cherry Melomel & e. Plum Melomel
f. Peach Melomel & g. Apricot Melomel
h. Strawberry Melomel, i. Blueberry Melomel & j. Berry Melomel
k. Citrus Melomel, l. Tropical Fruit Melomel, m. Prickly Pear Mead &
n. Other
3. Metheglin
a. Mulling Spice Metheglin
b. Beer Spice Metheglin & c. Mellow Spice Metheglin
d. Italian Spice Metheglin & e. Flower Petal Metheglin
f. Peppery Metheglin, g. Chile Mead & h. Other
4. Braggot
a. Pale Braggot, b. Amber Braggot & c. Dark Braggot
5. Mixed Category Mead
a. Hippocras, b. Apple Pie Mead, c. Spiced Melomel or Fruited Metheglin,
d. Maltomel, e. Malteglin & f. Other

A large mead competition, such as the Ambrosia Adventure or the Mazer Mead Cup,
might retain all of the subcategories or even add a few for new groupings
according to the entries received. Following this plan the category and
subcategory divisions can be used for any size of mead competition.

In addition to awards in the grouped subcategories, best-of-category awards and
a best-of-show award for the meads should be given. Make sure to have a
printout of the category description and the subcategory descriptions that are
to be judged on each judging table for easy reference.

Instructions for Judges
- -----------------------

As a mead judge, you have been called upon to give your impression and
objective critical opinion of the meads in the flight placed before you. Just
how is this accomplished? If you have judged beer in the past you already have
a great deal of the knowledge necessary to judge mead, because the procedures
to judge beer and mead have much in common. However, mead judging does have its
idiosyncrasies and needs to be considered separately.

Before the meads are brought out, look over the information provided by the
competition organizer. This should include a description of all of the mead
categories and subcategories to be judged. Make yourself familiar with the
attributes that are listed, and discuss the characteristics you will be looking
for with the other judges at the table.

There should also be a list of the meads to be judged on the table, along with
the category modifiers (Variety of honey, Strength, Sweetness, and Carbonation
Level) for each mead. Go over this list and decide on the order in which you
would like to receive the meads. In general, start with the meads that are dry,
sparkling hydromels made with mellow spices, delicate fruits and clover honeys,
and finish up with sweet, still sack meads made with hot spices, heady fruits
and strongly flavored honeys. This is done so that your palate won't be
overwhelmed by the strong tastes early in the flight and not be able to discern
the merits of the lighter meads. Inform the steward the order you've decided
upon, and the preferred serving temperature for the meads.

Also, take note of the number of meads to be judged in the flight. If there are
fifteen meads in the flight, keep that in mind as you take small sips of each
mead to avoid intoxication. If there are only eight meads in the flight, you
may be more cavalier about your tasting quantities.

If possible, do a bottle inspection before serving each mead, looking for fill
level, bacterial rings (a rarity in meads) and sediment level. Green or clear
bottles are fine, as skunkiness shouldn't be a problem in meads, unless the
brewer has added hops (as in a braggot). Don't prejudge the mead, but do use
all the information you have available to help diagnose problems. When pouring
the mead, decant slowly off of any sediment that may be present, and pour all
glasses before righting the bottle.

While judging the mead, keep in mind your overall concerns. The primary concern
is balance, both the acidity-sweetness-tannin balance and the balance between
the honey tastes and the other tastes, such as fruit or spice, that are present
in the mead. Another very important concern is the expression of the honey
character in the mead. The honey should come through strongly in the aroma as
well as the flavor; there should be no doubt that honey was included in the
ingredient list. If the honey is a varietal honey, that should be reflected in
the character. Lastly, you should be concerned about the expression of the
extra ingredients (besides honey) that are included in the mead. Spices should
be present in the aroma and flavor, and most fruits and malts will also have a
distinguishing color. Always remember that this is not a hedonic judging, where
meads are scored according to how well they subjectively please the imbiber,
and leave your personal flavor preferences at home.

After pouring a sample, quickly inhale the aromas and write down your
impressions. Next check the sample for color, clarity and carbonation. A still
mead with slight carbonation should not merit a big detraction, but in general
the carbonation level should match that indicated by the brewer. Be sure to
make notes of everything you detect about the appearance. Next, smell the mead
again and take a slow sip. Think about the flavors you are experiencing, where
in your mouth they seem to be most prominent, and how the mead feels on your
tongue. Think about the attack and the lingering aftertaste of the mead.
Transcribe all of your thoughts for the benefit of the brewer.

Mead flavor flaws are similar to beer flaws, but the emphasis is different.
Meads, especially heavier meads, may have a harshness or bite in the palate and
the aroma that comes from the presence of higher alcohols. Younger meads may
have a nutrient taste from the use of ammonium phosphate; this takes time to
mellow. Meads that have been aged for a long time can become oxidized and have
the characteristic wet cardboard taste. Sometimes, the sherry character
associated with oxidation can be appropriate in a mead, as in a cherry or plum
melomel. Meads can also be prone to phenolic and metallic tastes, which are not
appropriate. In contrast to beer, meads will not exhibit DMS or skunky tastes,
with the exception being braggots.

Make sure to cleanse your palate between entries with water, bland bread or a
cracker. Do your preliminary judging and scoring in silence so that you do not
influence the other judges. The entrant will benefit more from several
independent judgings than from several versions of the same outspoken judge's
opinions. Whether you prefer to assign scores in a top-down or bottom-up
fashion, put the most emphasis on giving complete and thorough written
comments, because they will matter more to most brewers than the overall score.
When the initial scoring is finished, discuss the mead with the other judges,
with an emphasis on learning all you can from them.

- ----------

Brewing Mead, Wassail! In Mazers Of Mead, Lt. Colonel Robert Gayre with Charlie
Papazian, 1948 & 1986.
Making Mead, Bryan Acton and Peter Duncan, 1984.
Making Mead (Honey Wine), Roger A. Morse, 1980.
Zymurgy, Special Ingredients and Indigenous Beer, Special 1994 Issue (17:4).
Zymurgy, "Stalking the Wild Meads", Ralph Bucca, Summer 1993 Issue (16:2).
Zymurgy, "Stimulate Your Senses With Mead", Susanne Price, Fall 1992 Issue

- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Michael L. Hall, Ph.D., is a computational physicist at Los Alamos National
Laboratory in New Mexico. Mike has been brewing beer and mead for six years and
is a certified judge in the BJCP. He was one of the founding members of the Los
Alamos Atom Mashers and has worn many hats in the club (president, newsletter
editor, treasurer, librarian, secretary). Mike can be reached via the Internet

This article may be found on the World Wide Web in various forms on the
Los Alamos Atom Mashers "Goodies Page":

This article was published in the January 1996 issue of _Inside Mead_, a
publication of the American Mead Association.

[If possible, these accents should be added to words in this article:

Curacao - cedilla on the second c
Jalapeno, Espanola - tilde over the n
Pequin - acute accent on the i


End of Mead Lover's Digest #456

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