VGA Trainer Program: part 8
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 W E L C O M E 
 To the VGA Trainer Program  
 By  
 DENTHOR of ASPHYXIA   
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==[ PART 8 ]==
Introduction
Hello everybody! Christmas is over, the last of the chocolates have been eaten, so it's time to get on with this, the eighth part of the ASPHYXIA Demo Trainer Series. This particular part is primarily about 3D, but also includes a bit on optimisation.
If you are already a 3D guru, you may as well skip this text file, have a quick look at the sample program then go back to sleep, because I am going to explain in minute detail exactly how the routines work ;)
If you would like to contact me, or the team, there are many ways you can do it :
 Write a message to Grant Smith/Denthor/Asphyxia in private mail on the ASPHYXIA BBS.
 Write a message in the Programming conference on the For Your Eyes Only BBS (of which I am the Moderator ) This is preferred if you have a general programming query or problem others would benefit from.
 Write to Denthor, EzE or Goth on Connectix.
 Write to : Grant Smith P.O.Box 270 Kloof 3640 Natal
 Call me (Grant Smith) at (031) 73 2129 (leave a message if you call during varsity)
 Write to mcphail@beastie.cs.und.ac.za on InterNet, and mention the word Denthor near the top of the letter.
NB : If you are a representative of a company or BBS, and want ASPHYXIA to do you a demo, leave mail to me; we can discuss it.
NNB : If you have done/attempted a demo, SEND IT TO ME! We are feeling quite lonely and want to meet/help out/exchange code with other demo groups. What do you have to lose? Leave a message here and we can work out how to transfer it. We really want to hear from you!
Optimisation
Before I begin with the note on 3D, I would like to stress that many of these routines, and probably most of your own, could be sped up quite a bit with a little optimisation. One must realise, however, that you must take a look at WHAT to optimise ... converting a routine that is only called once at startup into a tightly coded assembler routine may show off your merits as a coder, but does absolutely nothing to speed up your program. Something that is called often per frame is something that needs to be as fast as possible. For some, a much used procedure is the PutPixel procedure. Here is the putpixel procedure I gave you last week:
Procedure Putpixel (X,Y : Integer; Col : Byte; where:word);
BEGIN
Asm
push ds { 14 clock ticks }
push es { 14 }
mov ax,[where] { 8 }
mov es,ax { 2 }
mov bx,[X] { 8 }
mov dx,[Y] { 8 }
push bx { 15 }
mov bx, dx { 2 }
mov dh, dl { 2 }
xor dl, dl { 3 }
shl bx, 1 { 2 }
shl bx, 1 { 2 }
shl bx, 1 { 2 }
shl bx, 1 { 2 }
shl bx, 1 { 2 }
shl bx, 1 { 2 }
add dx, bx { 3 }
pop bx { 12 }
add bx, dx { 3 }
mov di, bx { 2 }
xor al,al { 3 }
mov ah, [Col] { 8 }
mov es:[di],ah { 10 }
pop es { 12 }
pop ds { 12 }
End;
END;
Total = 153 clock ticks
NOTE : Don't take my clock ticks as gospel, I probably got one or two wrong.
Right, now for some optimising. Firstly, if you have 286 instructions turned on, you may replace the 6 shl,1 with shl,6. Secondly, the Pascal compiler automatically pushes and pops ES, so those two lines may be removed. DS:[SI] is not altered in this procedure, so we may remove those too. Also, instead of moving COL into ah, we move it into AL and call stosb (es:[di]:=al; inc di). Let's have a look at the routine now :
Procedure Putpixel (X,Y : Integer; Col : Byte; where:word);
BEGIN
Asm
mov ax,[where] { 8 }
mov es,ax { 2 }
mov bx,[X] { 8 }
mov dx,[Y] { 8 }
push bx { 15 }
mov bx, dx { 2 }
mov dh, dl { 2 }
xor dl, dl { 3 }
shl bx, 6 { 8 }
add dx, bx { 3 }
pop bx { 12 }
add bx, dx { 3 }
mov di, bx { 2 }
mov al, [Col] { 8 }
stosb { 11 }
End;
END;
Total = 95 clock ticks
Now, let us move the value of BX directly into DI, thereby removing a costly push and pop. The MOV and the XOR of DX can be replaced by it's equivalent, SHL DX,8
Procedure Putpixel (X,Y : Integer; Col : Byte; where:word); assembler;
asm
mov ax,[where] { 8 }
mov es,ax { 2 }
mov bx,[X] { 8 }
mov dx,[Y] { 8 }
mov di,bx { 2 }
mov bx, dx { 2 }
shl dx, 8 { 8 }
shl bx, 6 { 8 }
add dx, bx { 3 }
add di, dx { 3 }
mov al, [Col] { 8 }
stosb { 11 }
end;
Total = 71 clock ticks
As you can see, we have brought the clock ticks down from 153 ticks to 71 ticks ... quite an improvement. (The current ASPHYXIA putpixel takes 48 clock ticks) . As you can see, by going through your routines a few times, you can spot and remove unnecessary instructions, thereby greatly increasing the speed of your program.
Defining a 3D object
Drawing an object in 3D is not that easy. Sitting down and plotting a list of X,Y and Z points can be a time consuming business. So, let us first look at the three axes you are drawing them on :
Y Z
/\ /
 /
X<>

\/
X is the horizontal axis, from left to right. Y is the vertical axis, from top to bottom. Z is the depth, going straight into the screen.
In this trainer, we are using lines, so we define 2 X,Y and Z coordinates, one for each end of the line. A line from far away, in the upper left of the X and Y axes, to close up in the bottom right of the X and Y axes, would look like this :
{ x1 y1 z1 x2 y2 z2 }
( (10,10,10),(10,10,10) )
Rotating a point with matrixes
NOTE : I thought that more then one matix are matrisese (sp), but my spellchecker insists it is matrixes, so I let it have it's way ;)
Having a 3D object is useless unless you can rotate it some way. For demonstration purposes, I will begin by working in two dimensions, X and Y.
Let us say you have a point, A,B, on a graph.
Y
 /O1 (Cos (a)*ASin (a)*B , Sin (a)*A+Cos (a)*B)
/ (A,B)
X<O>


Now, let us say we rotate this point by 45 degrees anticlockwise. The new A,B can be easily be calculated using sin and cos, by an adaption of our circle algorithm, ie.
A2:=Cos (45)*A  Sin (45)*B
B2:=Sin (45)*A + Cos (45)*B
I recall that in standard 8 and 9, we went rather heavily into this in maths. If you have troubles, fine a 8/9/10 maths book and have a look; it will go through the proofs etc.
Anyway, we have now rotated an object in two dimensions, AROUND THE Z AXIS. In matrix form, the equation looks like this :
[ Cos (a) Sin (a) 0 0 ] [ x ]
[ Sin (a) Cos (a) 0 0 ] . [ y ]
[ 0 0 1 0 ] [ z ]
[ 0 0 0 1 ] [ 1 ]
I will not go to deeply into matrixes math at this stage, as there are many books on the subject (it is not part of matric maths, however). To multiply a matrix, to add the products of the row of the left matrix and the column of the right matrix, and repeat this for all the columns of the left matrix. I don't explain it as well as my first year maths lecturer, but have a look at how I derived A2 and B2 above. Here are the other matrixes :
Matrix for rotation around the Y axis :
[ Cos (a) 0 Sin (a) 0 ] [ x ]
[ 0 1 0 0 ] . [ y ]
[ Sin (a) 0 Cos (a) 0 ] [ z ]
[ 0 0 0 1 ] [ 1 ]
Matrix for rotation around the X axis :
[ 1 0 0 ] [ x ]
[ 0 Cos (a) Sin (a) 0 ] . [ y ]
[ 0 Sin (a) Cos (a) 0 ] [ z ]
[ 0 0 0 1 ] [ 1 ]
By putting all these matrixes together, we can translate out 3D points around the origin of 0,0,0. See the sample program for how we put them together.
In the sample program, we have a constant, never changing base object. This is rotated into a second variable, which is then drawn. I am sure many of you can thing of cool ways to change the base object, the effects of which will appear while the object is rotating. One idea is to "pulsate" a certain point of the object according to the beat of the music being played in the background. Be creative. If you feel up to it, you could make your own version of transformers ;)
Drawing a 3D point to screen
Having a rotated 3D object is useless unless we can draw it to screen. But how do we show a 3D point on a 2D screen? The answer needs a bit of explaining. Examine the following diagram :
 ________
_______ o Object at X,Y,Z o1 Object at X,Y,Z2
Eye > O)_______
 ________
  Field of vision
Screen
Let us pretend that the centre of the screen is the horizon of our little 3D world. If we draw a three dimensional line from object "o" to the centre of the eye, and place a pixel on the X and Y coordinates where it passes through the screen, we will notice that when we do the same with object o1, the pixel is closer to the horizon, even though their 3D X and Y coords are identical, but "o1"'s Z is larger then "o"'s. This means that the further away a point is, the closer to the horizon it is, or the smaller the object will appear. That sounds right, doesn't it? But, I hear you cry, how do we translate this into a formula? The answer is quite simple. Divide your X and your Y by your Z. Think about it. The larger the number you divide by, the closer to zero, or the horizon, is the result! This means, the bigger the Z, the further away is the object! Here it is in equation form :
nx := 256*x div (zZoff)+Xoff
ny := 256*y div (zZoff)+Yoff
NOTE : Zoff is how far away the entire object is, Xoff is the objects X value, and Yoff is the objects Y value. In the sample program, Xoff start off at 160 and Yoff starts off at 100, so that the object is in the middle of the screen.
The 256 that you times by is the perspective with which you are viewing. Changing this value gives you a "fish eye" effect when viewing the object. Anyway, there you have it! Draw a pixel at nx,ny, and viola! you are now doing 3D! Easy, wasn't it?
Possible improvements
This program is not the most optimised routine you will ever encounter (;)) ... it uses 12 muls and 2 divs per point. (Asphyxia currently has 9 muls and 2 divs per point) Real math is used for all the calculations in the sample program, which is slow, so fixed point math should be implemented (I will cover fixed point math in a future trainer). The line routine currently being used is very slow. Chain4 could be used to cut down on screen flipping times.
Color values per line should be added, base object morphing could be put in, polygons could be used instead of lines, handling of more then one object should be implemented, clipping should be added instead of not drawing something if any part of it is out of bounds.
In other words, you have a lot of work ahead of you ;)
In closing
There are a lot of books out there on 3D, and quite a few sample programs too. Have a look at them, and use the best bits to create your own, unique 3D engine, with which you can do anything you want. I am very interested in 3D (though EzE and Goth wrote most of ASPHYXIA'S 3D routines), and would like to see what you can do with it. Leave me a message through one of the means described above.
I am delving into the murky world of texture mapping. If anyone out there has some routines on the subject and are interested in swapping, give me a buzz!
What to do in future trainers? Help me out on this one! Are there any effects/areas you would like a bit of info on? Leave me a message!
I unfortunately did not get any messages regarding BBS's that carry this series, so the list that follows is the same one from last time. Give me your names, sysops!
Aaaaargh!!! Try as I might, I can't think of a new quote. Next time, I promise! ;)
Bye for now,
 Denthor
These fine BBS's carry the ASPHYXIA DEMO TRAINER SERIES : (alphabetical)
ÉËËËËË»
BBS Name Telephone No. Open MsgFilePast
ÌÎÎÎÎÎ¹
ASPHYXIA BBS #1 (031) 7655312 ALL  *  *  * 
ASPHYXIA BBS #2 (031) 7656293 ALL  *  *  * 
Connectix BBS (031) 2669992 ALL  *   
For Your Eyes Only BBS (031) 285318 A/H  *  *  * 
ÈÊÊÊÊÊ¼
Open = Open at all times or only A/H
Msg = Available in message base
File = Available in file base
Past = Previous Parts available
TUTPROG8.PAS
{$X+}
USES Crt;
CONST VGA = $A000;
MaxLines = 12;
Obj : Array [1..MaxLines,1..2,1..3] of integer =
(
((10,10,10),(10,10,10)),((10,10,10),(10,10,10)),
((10,10,10),(10,10,10)),((10,10,10),(10,10,10)),
((10,10,10),(10,10,10)),((10,10,10),(10,10,10)),
((10,10,10),(10,10,10)),((10,10,10),(10,10,10)),
((10,10,10),(10,10,10)),((10,10,10),(10,10,10)),
((10,10,10),(10,10,10)),((10,10,10),(10,10,10))
); { The 3D coordinates of our object ... stored as (X1,Y1,Z1), }
{ (X2,Y2,Z2) ... for the two ends of a line }
Type Point = Record
x,y,z:real; { The data on every point we rotate}
END;
Virtual = Array [1..64000] of byte; { The size of our Virtual Screen }
VirtPtr = ^Virtual; { Pointer to the virtual screen }
VAR Lines : Array [1..MaxLines,1..2] of Point; { The base object rotated }
Translated : Array [1..MaxLines,1..2] of Point; { The rotated object }
Xoff,Yoff,Zoff:Integer; { Used for movement of the object }
lookup : Array [0..360,1..2] of real; { Our sin and cos lookup table }
Virscr : VirtPtr; { Our first Virtual screen }
Vaddr : word; { The segment of our virtual screen}
{}
Procedure SetMCGA; { This procedure gets you into 320x200x256 mode. }
BEGIN
asm
mov ax,0013h
int 10h
end;
END;
{}
Procedure SetText; { This procedure returns you to text mode. }
BEGIN
asm
mov ax,0003h
int 10h
end;
END;
{}
Procedure Cls (Where:word;Col : Byte);
{ This clears the screen to the specified color }
BEGIN
asm
push es
mov cx, 32000;
mov es,[where]
xor di,di
mov al,[col]
mov ah,al
rep stosw
pop es
End;
END;
{}
Procedure SetUpVirtual;
{ This sets up the memory needed for the virtual screen }
BEGIN
GetMem (VirScr,64000);
vaddr := seg (virscr^);
END;
{}
Procedure ShutDown;
{ This frees the memory used by the virtual screen }
BEGIN
FreeMem (VirScr,64000);
END;
{}
procedure flip(source,dest:Word);
{ This copies the entire screen at "source" to destination }
begin
asm
push ds
mov ax, [Dest]
mov es, ax
mov ax, [Source]
mov ds, ax
xor si, si
xor di, di
mov cx, 32000
rep movsw
pop ds
end;
end;
{}
Procedure Pal(Col,R,G,B : Byte);
{ This sets the Red, Green and Blue values of a certain color }
Begin
asm
mov dx,3c8h
mov al,[col]
out dx,al
inc dx
mov al,[r]
out dx,al
mov al,[g]
out dx,al
mov al,[b]
out dx,al
end;
End;
{}
Function rad (theta : real) : real;
{ This calculates the degrees of an angle }
BEGIN
rad := theta * pi / 180
END;
{}
Procedure SetUpPoints;
{ This sets the basic offsets of the object, creates the lookup table and
moves the object from a constant to a variable }
VAR loop1:integer;
BEGIN
Xoff:=160;
Yoff:=100;
Zoff:=256;
For loop1:=0 to 360 do BEGIN
lookup [loop1,1]:=sin (rad (loop1));
lookup [loop1,2]:=cos (rad (loop1));
END;
For loop1:=1 to MaxLines do BEGIN
Lines [loop1,1].x:=Obj [loop1,1,1];
Lines [loop1,1].y:=Obj [loop1,1,2];
Lines [loop1,1].z:=Obj [loop1,1,3];
Lines [loop1,2].x:=Obj [loop1,2,1];
Lines [loop1,2].y:=Obj [loop1,2,2];
Lines [loop1,2].z:=Obj [loop1,2,3];
END;
END;
{}
Procedure Putpixel (X,Y : Integer; Col : Byte; where:word);
{ This puts a pixel on the screen by writing directly to memory. }
BEGIN
Asm
mov ax,[where]
mov es,ax
mov bx,[X]
mov dx,[Y]
mov di,bx
mov bx, dx {; bx = dx}
shl dx, 8
shl bx, 6
add dx, bx {; dx = dx + bx (ie y*320)}
add di, dx {; finalise location}
mov al, [Col]
stosb
End;
END;
{}
Procedure Line(a,b,c,d:integer;col:byte;where:word);
{ This draws a solid line from a,b to c,d in colour col }
function sgn(a:real):integer;
begin
if a>0 then sgn:=+1;
if a<0 then sgn:=1;
if a=0 then sgn:=0;
end;
var i,s,d1x,d1y,d2x,d2y,u,v,m,n:integer;
begin
u:= c  a;
v:= d  b;
d1x:= SGN(u);
d1y:= SGN(v);
d2x:= SGN(u);
d2y:= 0;
m:= ABS(u);
n := ABS(v);
IF NOT (M>N) then
BEGIN
d2x := 0 ;
d2y := SGN(v);
m := ABS(v);
n := ABS(u);
END;
s := m shr 1;
FOR i := 0 TO m DO
BEGIN
putpixel(a,b,col,where);
s := s + n;
IF not (s<m) THEN
BEGIN
s := s  m;
a:= a + d1x;
b := b + d1y;
END
ELSE
BEGIN
a := a + d2x;
b := b + d2y;
END;
end;
END;
{}
Procedure DrawLogo;
{ This draws 'ASPHYXIA' at the top of the screen in little balls }
CONST ball : Array [1..5,1..5] of byte =
((0,1,1,1,0),
(1,4,3,2,1),
(1,3,3,2,1),
(1,2,2,2,1),
(0,1,1,1,0));
VAR Logo : Array [1..5] of String;
loop1,loop2,loop3,loop4:integer;
BEGIN
pal (13,0,63,0);
pal (1,0,0,40);
pal (2,0,0,45);
pal (3,0,0,50);
pal (4,0,0,60);
Logo[1]:=' O OOO OOO O O O O O O OOO O ';
Logo[2]:='O O O O O O O O O O O O O O';
Logo[3]:='OOO OOO OOO OOO O O O OOO';
Logo[4]:='O O O O O O O O O O O O';
Logo[5]:='O O OOO O O O O O O OOO O O';
For loop1:=1 to 5 do
For loop2:=1 to 31 do
if logo[loop1][loop2]='O' then
For loop3:=1 to 5 do
For loop4:=1 to 5 do
putpixel (loop2*10+loop3,loop1*4+loop4,ball[loop3,loop4],vaddr);
END;
{}
Procedure RotatePoints (X,Y,Z:Integer);
{ This rotates object lines by X,Y and Z; then places the result in
TRANSLATED }
VAR loop1:integer;
temp:point;
BEGIN
For loop1:=1 to maxlines do BEGIN
temp.x:=lines[loop1,1].x;
temp.y:=lookup[x,2]*lines[loop1,1].y  lookup[x,1]*lines[loop1,1].z;
temp.z:=lookup[x,1]*lines[loop1,1].y + lookup[x,2]*lines[loop1,1].z;
translated[loop1,1]:=temp;
If y>0 then BEGIN
temp.x:=lookup[y,2]*translated[loop1,1].x  lookup[y,1]*translated[loop1,1].y;
temp.y:=lookup[y,1]*translated[loop1,1].x + lookup[y,2]*translated[loop1,1].y;
temp.z:=translated[loop1,1].z;
translated[loop1,1]:=temp;
END;
If z>0 then BEGIN
temp.x:=lookup[z,2]*translated[loop1,1].x + lookup[z,1]*translated[loop1,1].z;
temp.y:=translated[loop1,1].y;
temp.z:=lookup[z,1]*translated[loop1,1].x + lookup[z,2]*translated[loop1,1].z;
translated[loop1,1]:=temp;
END;
temp.x:=lines[loop1,2].x;
temp.y:=cos (rad(X))*lines[loop1,2].y  sin (rad(X))*lines[loop1,2].z;
temp.z:=sin (rad(X))*lines[loop1,2].y + cos (rad(X))*lines[loop1,2].z;
translated[loop1,2]:=temp;
If y>0 then BEGIN
temp.x:=cos (rad(Y))*translated[loop1,2].x  sin (rad(Y))*translated[loop1,2].y;
temp.y:=sin (rad(Y))*translated[loop1,2].x + cos (rad(Y))*translated[loop1,2].y;
temp.z:=translated[loop1,2].z;
translated[loop1,2]:=temp;
END;
If z>0 then BEGIN
temp.x:=cos (rad(Z))*translated[loop1,2].x + sin (rad(Z))*translated[loop1,2].z;
temp.y:=translated[loop1,2].y;
temp.z:=sin (rad(Z))*translated[loop1,2].x + cos (rad(Z))*translated[loop1,2].z;
translated[loop1,2]:=temp;
END;
END;
END;
{}
Procedure DrawPoints;
{ This draws the translated object to the virtual screen }
VAR loop1:Integer;
nx,ny,nx2,ny2:integer;
temp:integer;
BEGIN
For loop1:=1 to MaxLines do BEGIN
If (translated[loop1,1].z+zoff<0) and (translated[loop1,2].z+zoff<0) then BEGIN
temp:=round (translated[loop1,1].z+zoff);
nx :=round (256*translated[loop1,1].X) div temp+xoff;
ny :=round (256*translated[loop1,1].Y) div temp+yoff;
temp:=round (translated[loop1,2].z+zoff);
nx2:=round (256*translated[loop1,2].X) div temp+xoff;
ny2:=round (256*translated[loop1,2].Y) div temp+yoff;
If (NX > 0) and (NX < 320) and (NY > 25) and (NY < 200) and
(NX2> 0) and (NX2< 320) and (NY2> 25) and (NY2< 200) then
line (nx,ny,nx2,ny2,13,vaddr);
END;
END;
END;
{}
Procedure ClearPoints;
{ This clears the translated object from the virtual screen ... believe it
or not, this is faster then a straight "cls (vaddr,0)" }
VAR loop1:Integer;
nx,ny,nx2,ny2:Integer;
temp:integer;
BEGIN
For loop1:=1 to MaxLines do BEGIN
If (translated[loop1,1].z+zoff<0) and (translated[loop1,2].z+zoff<0) then BEGIN
temp:=round (translated[loop1,1].z+zoff);
nx :=round (256*translated[loop1,1].X) div temp+xoff;
ny :=round (256*translated[loop1,1].Y) div temp+yoff;
temp:=round (translated[loop1,2].z+zoff);
nx2:=round (256*translated[loop1,2].X) div temp+xoff;
ny2:=round (256*translated[loop1,2].Y) div temp+yoff;
If (NX > 0) and (NX < 320) and (NY > 25) and (NY < 200) and
(NX2> 0) and (NX2< 320) and (NY2> 25) and (NY2< 200) then
line (nx,ny,nx2,ny2,0,vaddr);
END;
END;
END;
{}
Procedure MoveAround;
{ This is the main display procedure. Firstly it brings the object towards
the viewer by increasing the Zoff, then passes control to the user }
VAR deg,loop1:integer;
ch:char;
BEGIN
deg:=0;
ch:=#0;
Cls (vaddr,0);
DrawLogo;
For loop1:=256 to 40 do BEGIN
zoff:=loop1*2;
RotatePoints (deg,deg,deg);
DrawPoints;
flip (vaddr,vga);
ClearPoints;
deg:=(deg+5) mod 360;
END;
Repeat
if keypressed then BEGIN
ch:=upcase (Readkey);
Case ch of 'A' : zoff:=zoff+5;
'Z' : zoff:=zoff5;
',' : xoff:=xoff5;
'.' : xoff:=xoff+5;
'S' : yoff:=yoff5;
'X' : yoff:=yoff+5;
END;
END;
DrawPoints;
flip (vaddr,vga);
ClearPoints;
RotatePoints (deg,deg,deg);
deg:=(deg+5) mod 360;
Until ch=#27;
END;
BEGIN
SetUpVirtual;
Writeln ('Greetings and salutations! Hope you had a great Christmas and New');
Writeln ('year! ;) ... Anyway, this tutorial is on 3D, so this is what is');
Writeln ('going to happen ... a wireframe square will come towards you.');
Writeln ('When it gets close, you get control. "A" and "Z" control the Z');
Writeln ('movement, "," and "." control the X movement, and "S" and "X"');
Writeln ('control the Y movement. I have not included rotation control, but');
Writeln ('it should be easy enough to put in yourself ... if you have any');
Writeln ('hassles, leave me mail.');
Writeln;
Writeln ('Read the main text file for ideas on improving this code ... and');
Writeln ('welcome to the world of 3D!');
writeln;
writeln;
Write (' Hit any key to contine ...');
Readkey;
SetMCGA;
SetUpPoints;
MoveAround;
SetText;
ShutDown;
Writeln ('All done. This concludes the eigth sample program in the ASPHYXIA');
Writeln ('Training series. You may reach DENTHOR under the names of GRANT');
Writeln ('SMITH/DENTHOR/ASPHYXIA on the ASPHYXIA BBS. I am also an avid');
Writeln ('Connectix BBS user, and occasionally read RSAProg.');
Writeln ('For discussion purposes, I am also the moderator of the Programming');
Writeln ('newsgroup on the For Your Eyes Only BBS.');
Writeln ('The numbers are available in the main text. You may also write to me at:');
Writeln (' Grant Smith');
Writeln (' P.O. Box 270');
Writeln (' Kloof');
Writeln (' 3640');
Writeln ('I hope to hear from you soon!');
Writeln; Writeln;
Write ('Hit any key to exit ...');
Readkey;
END.